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Moon part 3

Yup…as u guessed it….more pictures of the moon

I couldnt take much as the night was cloudy

Yep….thts my dog,labbie…cute…isnt she?? 😀

Photos took on 10th july 2008


Filed under: Astronomy, ,

Star Making Machine

Who-hoo….another discovery by NASA…hats off to them…

They have found a “stellar machine”,a remote galaxy, that gives birth/pumps out stars at the rate of 1000 to 4000 stars an year!!!amazing!!!

Read more here or here

Super Starburst Galaxy!!

Filed under: Astronomy,

Mission to Mars

NASA’s Phoenix spacecraft appeared Sunday to have made a safe, flawless landing on Mars.

In the mission support room during the final, tense minutes before the landing, long stretches of quiet were punctuated by cheers and clapping as confirmation of crucial events like the deployment of the parachute were confirmed.

Then, at 7:53 p.m. Eastern time, Richard Kornfeld, the lead communications officer for entry, descent and landing, announced: “Touchdown signal detected.” The mission controllers erupted in cheers and began hugging one another in congratulations.

Because the signal was relayed via the Mars Odyssey orbiter, the controllers would have to wait a couple of hours, until Odyssey’s next pass over the landing site, for additional word of the Phoenix’s condition, including whether it had successfully unfolded its solar panels, and possibly for the first photographs of its landing site in the frigid plains above the arctic circle of Mars.

If all is operating properly, the next few days will be spent checking out the lander’s instruments. Then it will begin the first up-close investigation of Mars’s northern polar regions. That area became a prime area of interest for planetary scientists after Odyssey discovered in 2002 vast quantities of water ice lying a few inches beneath the surface in Mars’s polar regions.

All of Mars’s surface is currently far too cold for life to exist, but in the past, the planet’s axis may have periodically tipped over so that its north pole pointed at the sun during summer. That could have warmed the ice into liquid water.

With liquid water comes the possibility of life.

On the spacecraft, a robotic arm with a scoop will dig into the permafrost terrain and into the ice. Instruments include a small oven that will heat the scooped-up dirt and ice to 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit. Analyzing the vapors will provide information on the minerals, and that will provide clues about whether the ice ever melted and whether this region was habitable.

“We see Phoenix as a stepping stone to future investigations of Mars,” said Peter Smith of the University of Arizona, the principal investigator of the mission.

But the spacecraft had to get to the surface first. Mission managers sent their last instructions to it around noon Eastern time on Sunday. From there, the spacecraft operated on autopilot all the way to the surface.

Barry Goldstein, the mission’s project manager, said the management team decided against a small tweak of the trajectory to move away from “a small, rather diffuse rock pile” within the intended landing area. But there was only a 1 percent chance of landing on the rock pile.

During the day Sunday, the pull of Mars’s gravity accelerated the spacecraft from 6,300 miles per hour to 12,700 m.p.h. when it entered the Martian atmosphere. The friction of the atmosphere slowed the craft down by 90 percent, then a parachute provided further drag. For the last kilometer down to the surface, 12 rocket engines slowed the spacecraft to a velocity of 5 m.p.h. as it bumped into the ground.

The landing held an extra measure of anxiety, because the spacecraft has the same basic design as NASA’s Mars Polar Lander, which crashed while landing near the south pole in 1999. The spacecraft was originally going to Mars’s equatorial region as Mars Surveyor 2001, but when investigations of the Polar Lander failure turned up major flaws in the design, that mission was canceled, and the almost complete Surveyor spacecraft was put into storage.


Filed under: Astronomy, , ,


I was skimming through the channels yesterday and i saw gases swirling in the TV.I stopped changing the channels and saw what it was and was i amazed.And i also learned quite a few from it.
It was Jupiter!!The largest planet in the solar system.

These are the things i learned from Discovery Channel

  • Jupiter saves Earth from getting hit by asteroids,comets etc.How???Since Jupiter has the highest gravity in the system,any object passing through the system gets attracted by the gravity of Jupiter and so Earth is saved.
  • One or two of the Jupiter’s moon (Io i think) may support basic life forms as it contains water!
  • Jupiter has NO SOLID GROUND!!! 😮 😮 .This is what made my jaw drop down in excitement!!!!

A satellite was launched (didn’t note the date…but i think it was some time back) and after revolving around the Earth to gain momentum to reach Jupiter (time taken to reach Jupiter:6 whole years!!!) it started its journey.

Then after reaching the  field of gravity,the satellite launched a probe into it to collect samples of sand etc…but the probe never landed….it traveled for 57 minutes and never landed…it was full of gases gases and more gases!!The probe was then destroyed by the atmosphere of Jupiter.

The inner layer of Jupiter is in molten state (iron and forgot what the other metal was!! hehe)
Will add pics soon! 😀

Filed under: Astronomy,

Moon 2

Yet again….photos of the moon….couldnt resist taking snaps of the moon…..took on may13th(i think)…moon was over head…
Once again…photos were taken through mobile…
Here u go!!!

The last two pics were taken in auto mode and the rest were in night mode without flash….u will be able to see the shape of the moon clearly in the last two…

Filed under: Astronomy, ,

Moon 1

Two days before(that is on april 22nd) i took my dog out for a walk and looked up in the sky(as usual) and saw the moon hanging in the sky.It was a full moon,i just couldnt resist capturing it…

Though i am not an good photographer,here are the shots i took…

All these photos were taken through my dad’s mobile!!

Filed under: Astronomy,

Polar Poled!!!

For the past 7 to 8 years,i have been looking up at the sky eagerly to see a star,a particular star.

I have been searching it in the sky ever since i studied about it in a book,but was in vain as i never even saw it once.But

17th april was different…it was yet again a cloudless night.i luked up at the sky (directly above my head) and was amazed to see the star which i have been searching for a long time.POLAR STAR or POLE STAR.

The pole star(northern star in common language) is located at a gud distance from the Earth and its position is directly above the north pole of the Earth and so the name.

When u look directly up in the sky and turn around clockwise all the stars will seem to go anticlockwise and vice versa but the pole star will seem to be stationary…this is how u can find the pole star….this is what i read and this is how i found it!!!

Hope you get the chance to see this star…i was lucky…

Filed under: Astronomy, , ,

Perfect Night!!!

Well…today was just perfect for me…why???because today is/was a cloudless night!
And,as usual,i was gazing up at the sky and saw today,for the first time, three constellations…
Till today,i was able to see only one or two at the max…

The three were
2)Ursa Major(Great Bear)
3)Ursa Minor(Little Bear)

My one wish as of now….to see all possible constellations as soon as possible!

Filed under: Astronomy, ,

Stars in the Universe…

so…whts the universe???to put it simple…everything we see and those beyond the veil which is yet to be discovered is the universe!!!

universe consists of galaxies,stars,solar systems,planets,satellite,asteroids,black holes,meteors,etc etc etc.

here i will be posting information which i have gathered over the past few years!!!!(i know this sounds funny but i had a keen interest in the outer space ever since i read about it in my 10th and 12th standards…way back in 2003 and 2005!!!)


A star is a giant ball of gas which releases energy produced by nuclear fusion in its core. Stars are composed of at least 99% hydrogen and helium. These elements are combined by nuclear fusion to create heavier elements, such as carbon.


eagle-nebula.jpg a nebula(eagle nebula to be precise)



protostar.jpg A Protostar

There are many different stages in the lifetime of a star. Usually, it takes up to millions or billions of years to complete these stages. It takes a few million years for a gas cloud to collapse and become a star. Stars that have about 50 times the mass of our sun can last for about 10 million years. On the other hand, stars with 1/100 the mass of our sun can last for up to one trillion years.

Stars are extremely hot. There is no set temperature for a star. It basically depends on the size, mass, and stage of the star. Temperature also depends on the part of the star. The center of A star is much hotter than the outside of a star. Normal stars can get as hot as 90,000° F. Our sun’s temperature is about 10,000° F. Newly created neutron stars and white dwarfs start off being about 360,000° F before cooling down to below 90,000° F.




In order for stars to go through the process of nuclear fusion, they need fuel. Stars are made out of this fuel, and have only a limited amount. These fuels are mostly hydrogen and helium, as well as smaller amounts of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. As a star uses up one type of fuel, it must change its size and pressure in order to use another. Sometimes these changes are very subtle, while other times they are literally quite explosive. These changes take place over a course of millions to billions of years.


A star is born in a huge cloud of gas and dust known as a nebula . This nebula is about 21 light-years (125 trillion miles) across. Part of the nebula begins to shrink under the pull of its own gravity. This forms a protostar which is about 60 million miles across. The star begins to take shape. The temperature continues to rise and nuclear fusion begins to take place. The pressure from inside the star finally equalizes the gravity pushing in, and the star stops contracting.


In order for nuclear fusion to take place, there must be tremendous amounts of pressure and heat. This pressure crushes together elements to create more massive elements and energy. Stars begin fusing hydrogen first because it is the least dense and the easiest to fuse. Four hydrogen nuclei fuse together to form one nucleus of helium. By-products of this are the production of two positrons, two neutrinos, and the release of energy. Stars that are going through this hydrogen burning process are known to be on the main sequence. Stars spend most of their life on the main sequence.


A star will eventually use up most of its hydrogen and be left with helium. At this time there is not enough pressure crushing down on the star to create a nuclear reaction with helium. Nuclear reactions cease inside the star, and because there is no longer any outward push from fusion, the star begins to collapse upon its self. Here is where the star leaves the main sequence. This collapse begins to create more and more pressure inside the star until it is sufficient to have the fusing process of helium begin in the core, while some of the remaining hydrogen burns just outside of it. The product of this helium burning is carbon and oxygen. The star swells, and depending on its size, either becomes a red giant or a red supergiant.



red-giant.jpg a red giant(this is fictious…this is the red giant sun rising and a photo drawn from earth)



After the hydrogen burning process is complete in stars with an initial mass of less than 8 solar masses, they become red giants. These red giants have a diameter of roughly 60 million miles. Helium is burning in the core producing oxygen and carbon, while a thin layer of hydrogen is burning around it where there is not sufficient pressure for helium burning. The red giant begins to brighten between 1,000 and 10,000 times. The hydrogen-rich covering on the surface of the star begins to swell and becomes as large as the orbit of Earth or Mars. Because there is so little pressure now in the outside areas of the star, the surface temperature drops to about 5,000 – 6,500 degrees Fahrenheit. This temperature is actually very cool for a star. A strong solar wind begins to blow, and jettisons away most of this hydrogen covering. All that is left is a long-period variable star. This shed material is known as a planetary nebula. It can get as big as 1 light-year across.

The center of the star has now met its demise. During the formation of the planetary nebula the star ceases all nuclear reactions. The star is still very hot, up to several hundred thousand degrees Fahrenheit. Over a few hundred million years, the star cools and becomes a white dwarf. As the star cools more, it becomes dark and barely detectable. It is now known as a black dwarf.



The white/black dwarf is composed of carbon and oxygen. Surrounding this is a thin layer of helium, sometimes surrounded by hydrogen. The star is very compact. Although only about the size of earth, it’s mass can be from a little less than one half a solar mass to a little more than one solar mass.

black-dwarf.jpga black dwarf

If a star starts off with a mass of less than 8 solar masses, then it will stop at the red giant stage. More massive stars continue to burn. The carbon and oxygen produced in the previous stage begin to fuse. Carbon begins to be crushed into neon and magnesium, while oxygen is being crushed into silicon and sulfur. Silicon and sulfur get crushed into an iron core.

This iron core now just sits in the center of the star. The reason for this is that iron doesn’t burn. Nuclear burning is only possible if an object is releasing energy. In order for iron to go the fusing process, energy must be added. This leads to the collapse of the star. The addition of energy that the iron needs will only occur during the supernova explosion caused by the collapse of the star.

Because the iron is not fusing, it does not create any outward pressure do balance the effects of gravity. As the iron gets a mass of about 1.4 solar masses, gravity gets the upper hand and the core collapses from a size of about 5,000 miles to about 12 miles in less than a second. This sudden crush makes protons and electrons combine to form neutrons. This expels high-energy subatomic particles (known as neutrinos.) This huge energy release is equivalent to 100 of our stars burning for more than 10 billion years. A small amount of energy is deposited in the lower layers of the shell surrounding the core, triggering the supernova explosion. The energy deposited around the core creates a shock wave that runs outward toward the stars surface. As it is passing through, it heats up the shell sounding the core, starts nuclear burning, and throws off the shell faster than 10 million mph. This is when the iron fuses to create heavier particles. When the shock wave reaches the surface, it heats them very quickly and causes them to glow. In a day or 2, the star is brighter than a billion suns.

white-dwarf.jpg a white dwarf indicated by the arrow near the twin star Sirius


In a couple of weeks, the explosion diminishes, although it may remain visible for months or years.
What’s left is two distinct parts. There is a rapidly expanding gaseous shell that barges through the surrounding interstellar medium and interacts with it, and there is the compact stellar remnant which is either a neutron star or a black hole.



neutron-star.jpg a neutron star

Neutron stars are super-dense remnants of supernovae. They have about 1.4 solar masses, but only have a diameter of 12 miles. Because they are so small and faint, they can’t be seen with visible light. Neutron stars spin very fast. Usually they spin about once every second, but some can spin much faster. For example, a neutron star in the Crab nebula has been found to spin 30 times per second. This rapid rotation creates a large magnetic field. The neutron star begins to emit radiation out of its poles. This radiation ranges from radio waves to visible light to x-rays to gamma rays. Neutron stars can lead to pulsars. Pulsars are short for “Pulsating radio sources”. Because neutron stars emit beams of radiation out of their poles, if they’re positioned right they will sweep across earth and a pulsating signal will be detectable.


black-hole.jpg a black hole

black-hole-2.jpgan imaginary black hole


If an object with four or more solar masses remains after a supernova explosion, it will become a black hole. Because there is so much mass and no nuclear reactions inside of the star to compensate for it, the gravity continues to crush the star. Eventually, the gravity gets so strong that it even holds back light. When material first begins to get pulled into a black hole, it swirls around it for awhile. It will heat up and eventually give off visible x-rays that are detectable before finally crossing the event horizon and enter the black hole.

Filed under: Astronomy, , ,

About moi…

My name is Vivek and I am final year CSE student.What can I say about me? I like anime and football too.And i like to see wild life,especially if it has a cat,a big cat, in it!
July 2018
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